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Markov S.L. Psychology of Creativity: A textbook for university students.
- K .: Electronic textbook, 1997
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 3. Basic mechanisms, rules and techniques of creative activity
Chapter 5. Creative dialogue of individual with the World
Chapter 6. Techniques to enhance Creativity and the art of
Chapter 7. Children's creativity: essence, specificity and basic
At the moment the whole greater number of the researchers converges in opinion, that the creativity is not destiny and privilege of the select, elite persons, and ability to it is an especial, exclusive gratis. The given interpretation of creativity allows to overcome artificial created precipice between the ordinary person and genius. Thus the simple person finds new horizons and opportunities of development, and the genius loses his divine and mystical aureole.
The modern humanistic psychology asserts, that the creativity is inalienable attribute and genuine essence of the person, that each of us has a universal core of creative abilities and that the genius sleeps in each persons.
Many scientists consider, that today the mankind is only at the beginning of the spiritual development, and each person does not realise his true abilities and opportunities, using and performing in his real life only their insignificant part. Thus the discrepancy between individual actual and ideal essence also between whom he is, and whom he should and can become is his the most deep and essence contradiction . Just this key contradiction "is translucent" through all internal and external conflicts of the person, and serves as implicit reason of all his vital problems.
A major problem of modern psychology becomes a search of ways and methods of revelation innermost layers of a human essence, activation of his supreme “I” and approach the person to his genuine essence. Here the basic problem - how to learn the person, is naturally transformed to a problem - how to realise his inexhaustible opportunities in a most effective way, how to make the person happy, how to fill his life with sense and supreme values, how to help him to overcome his limited self and to find ability to cope with influence of becoming complicated environment in easy, nice and effective way.
The problem of awakening, activation and formation of creative potential of each person is especially urgent in the present time, which is characterised of increasing of complexity, dynamism and multiplicity of heterogeneous problems and conflicts. Just their successful, beautiful and productive solving makes essence of economical, political and spiritual progress of a society. In opinion of the modern American researchers of creativity, revealing and the development of the creative persons is a problem of national importance, and those states, which create conditions for this purpose, will have large advantages.
Probably, it is possible to assert, that just the integral creative person, determined by appropriated supreme values and ideals, capable to create new original ideas, hypothesises and ways of the decision of complex vital problems is real, genuine riches of a nation.
Each person simply "doomed" on creativity, on awakening and realisation of the creative essence, on fulfilment of the creative mission and destiny. Only in creativity the person can again find self, to merge with genuine "I", to find the justification of the existence.
The understanding of creativity as of the highest degree of any kind of activity puts before the person a problem of saturation each moment, each act of the life by elements of creativity, entering them in dialogue, in self-development, in perception of a nature and products of culture, in the solving of numerous vital problems. Thus just the non-standard and effective solving of various problems and conflicts, which person was collided with during her life , makes essence of the creative, problem attitude to the reality.
At the same time the creativity is immanent connected with cognitive, aesthetic and playing attitude toward the world, with breath-taking comprehension of secret essence of things and discovering of "mystical" charm of mystery, with identifying with a live and inanimate objects of the external world, to experience of their universal beauty and harmony. It assumes a finding of the " fantastic almighty power ", ability to enliven, to strengthen and to concentrate the essence of objects, freely to manipulate with their properties, condition and forms, to create a new useful combinations and patterns from them.
The creativity serves as a source of spiritual and mental health, harmonises the internal world of the person, gives him sense to existence, raises a self-estimation and strengthens belief in self. Any creative act is accompanied by activation and synthesis of intelligent, emotional and willed processes, fall outside of the self limits and also integrated, spontaneous and sincere self-expression of the true essence. At the same time the creative activity, conducting to creation of new products and values, is accompanied by self-development and self-perfection of the person, formation and development of her new qualities. Thus the healthy creative persons differ by brightly expressed individuality and direction on common to all mankind interests, spontaneity and, sincerity both tolerances, idealism and orientation to a reality, goodwill and wit.
At the same time in creativity the person not only finds a maximum degree personal integration, but also is identified, experiences and appropriates supreme values, which become internal determinant of her behaviour. Just the creativity integrates the personal and social purposes, alloys personal interest with the social significance and benefit.
In this connection with necessity the problem of “resacralization" of creativity, return it's lost social importance and unconditional value becomes aggravated. The problem of awakening, activation and formation of creative abilities of the person should penetrate the whole system of education, from family, including pre-school, school and university, and finishing special rates and training for any ages' groups. For this reason in the modern educational programs it is necessary to include creative and deductive games, training, seminars, special rates on acquainting with the basic laws of creative activity, on development of intuition, imagination and basic skills of meditation. It is very perspective to train the pupils to the basic rules and techniques of creative activity, and such productive methods of activation of creative potential as brain storming, synectic, morphological analysis and other.
The existing system of school training in basic is directed on mastering of extensive theoretical knowledge, on development logic, discursive method of the cognition of the world. Thus in process of pupils reproductive accumulations of a material, the rightbrain processes, responsible for imagination, intuition, imagery and emotionality are braked, and mainly formal logic and mechanical storing techniques develop. At the same time in educational institutions' traditions "sociocentrizm" are kept, putting collective of individuality, squeezing unique and incomparability of the specific person in "прокрустово ложе " of actual group norms and rules.
At the moment a problem, and faster tragedy of concealed, blocked talents more and more becomes aggravate. The gifted children differ by extreme vulnerability and supersensitivity to negative and inadequate educational influences, and by rejecting of the inefficient forms of education. They intuitively refuse and resist to stereotyped and reproductive methods of training, hardly experience their protest and do not understand its reasons. It is really sad, that frequently parents, educators and teachers do not understand these reasons too, and they negatively estimate the given pupils, attach to them labels of obstinate, hysterical, lazy and even intellectually defective children. It is evident that only prepared creative teacher and educator, which familiar with the basic laws of creative activity, armed by methods of diagnostics and activation of creative abilities can to feel, to discover and to educate the creative person.
Just to a problem of restoration and affirmation of understanding of creativity as the supreme value and the precious gift, as the genuine human essence and destiny, as the source of enjoyment and effective means of approach of the person and society to an ideal, this book is devoted.
At the same time attempt to generalise and to order existing approaches to the essence, structure and basic mechanisms of creative activity have been undertaken. Above all the main weight of attention was given to the specific methods of diagnostics and activation of creativity, on special techniques, standards and ways of the effective solution of diverse vital problems. It is such approach to creativity allows to approximate it to the real, everyday life and to give marked pragmatically character to theoretical knowledge.